Indian History and Culture

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Tuesday, 8th June 2021


Ancient History

The history and culture of India is dynamic and dates back to the dawn of human civilization. It begins with a mysterious culture along the Indus and in the farming communities in South India. The history of India has been shaped by the constant integration of people who migrate with the various cultures that surround India. Available evidence suggests that the use of iron, copper, and other metals was widespread in the Indian subcontinent at a relatively early stage, suggesting the advances that part of the world had made. At the end of the fourth millennium BC India had developed into a highly developed region of civilization.

Indus Valley Civilization

The history of India begins with the birth of the Indus Valley civilization, more precisely known as the Harappan civilization, which dates back to around 2500 BC. In the western part of South Asia, today's Pakistan and the West Indies, flourished. The largest of the four ancient urban civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China. Nothing was known about this civilization until the 1920s when the Archaeological Department of India carried out excavations in the Indus Valley, where the ruins of the two ancient cities of Mohenjodaro and The Ruins of Buildings and other items such as household items, weapons from war, gold and silver jewelry are located , Postage stamps, toys, pottery, etc. show that a highly developed civilization flourished in this country about four or five thousand years ago. The Indus Valley civilization was basically an urban civilization and people lived in well-planned and well-built cities that were also centers of trade. Henjodaro and Harappa show that they were magnificent trading cities, well planned, scientifically designed and maintained, with wide streets and a well-developed drainage system.

Vedic Civilization

The Vedic civilization is the oldest civilization in the history of ancient India. It is named after the Vedas, the first literature of the Hindu people. Vedic civilization flourished along the Saraswati River, in a region that now consists of the modern Indian states of Haryana and Punjab. Vedic is synonymous with Hinduism, another name for religious and spiritual thought that evolved from the Vedas. Ramayana and Mahabharata were the two great epics of that time.

The Buddhist Era

During the lifetime of Lord Gautama Buddha in the 7th and 6th centuries BC there were Sixteen great powers (Mahajanpadas). The most important republics were the Sakyas of Kapilavastu and the Licchavis of Vaishali. In addition to the republics, there were monarchical states, among which Kaushambi (Vatsa), Magadha, Kosala and Avanti stand out. However, there were distinctive signs of the republican states during the Buda in 560 BC. Were born. and died 480 BC At the age of eighty. His birthplace was a grove called Lumbini, near the town of Kapilavastu, at the foot of Mount Palpa in the Himalayas. Buddha, whose original name was Siddhartha Gautama, was the founder of Buddhism, religion and the philosophical system that became a great culture in much of the south. rn and East Asia.

 

Harshavardhana

In the early 7th century, Harshavardhana (606-647 BC) ascended the throne of Thaneshwar and Kannauj after the death of his brother Rajyavardhana. Around 612, Harshavardhana consolidated his kingdom in northern India. In the year 620, A. Harshavardhana invaded Chalukya. But the resistance of Chalukya turned out to be tough on Harshavardhana and he was defeated. Harshavardhana is known for its religious tolerance, competent administration and diplomatic relations. He maintained diplomatic relations with China and sent envoys who exchanged information about the Chinese rulers and developed their knowledge of one another. The Chinese traveler Hiuen Tsang, who visited India during his reign, vividly described the social, economic and religious conditions; under Harsha's rule, Harsha's death once again spoke India without a supreme central power.

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